Art Experiences

Teen Takeover III Now Accepting Applications!

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Auburn’s art museum is looking for 8th through 12th grade students to transform our gallery space. Museum educators will be there to help, but you are calling the shots! Teens this year will take on the task of responding to selected works in the JCSM collection in a project that will include both curated and created objects all built around a theme of animals and human interaction. We’ll give you the space and supplies. You’ll give us an exhibition unlike anything created before!

Teen Takeover participants will spend Spring Break in workshops creating works of art, framing and matting works, writing didactic materials, and installing objects.

The exhibition of the works from the JCSM collection will open to the public in February 11, 2017, close for a week of reinstallation, and reopen with participant-created works on March 27. The exhibition, with the addition of the works created in the Teen Takeover program will be open to the public March 27-April 30. Spaces are limited. Applications will be accepted starting Friday, December 16, 2016 (required) and will close Friday, February 3, 2017.

Applicants will be reviewed by the K-12 education staff and contacted by Friday, February 10.

$20 payment due onsite on Monday, March 13 (cash, check, or credit card payment accepted). Make checks payable to JCSM and note “Teen Takeover” in the memo line. Permission Forms (PDF) can be found on the JCSM website. Please fill out all of the forms and bring them with you along with payment. A parent/legal guardian must sign all forms for participants under the age of 19.

Experience the outcome during a special presentation for our community March 27 through April 30, 2017.

The “Teen Takeover” program and exhibition is supported in part by a charitable gift from Dr. Blue Brawner and PetVet Animal Health Center. Materials for the Teen Takeover program were generously donated by J&M Bookstore. This year, JCSM and the JCSM Teen Council have partnered with Storybook Farm, offering Teen Takeover participants the opportunity to donate artwork for an auction benefiting the farm’s mission. For more information about Storybook Farm, visit their website.

Teen Takeover III Schedule

March 13: Day one of takeover. Students create works of art based on their pre-established plans, working from 10am-4:45pm (break for lunch), in the Grand Gallery.

March 14: Continued work on art-making.

March 15: Curatorial choices, including specifics about presentation and installation. Matting and framing workshop. Continued work on art-making.

March 16: Label writing workshop. Continued framing and matting.

March 17: Completion day, finishing all works of art, matting and framing works on paper, final polish and presentation on sculpture and other media. Installation of most works, with precise plans on how to install the remaining objects. (note: this day is optional if all work is completed)

Important Dates

December 16 2016–January 27 2017:

applications accepted

March 13–March 17:

Teen Takeover program

March 27-April 17:

Teen Takeover exhibition open to the public


Apply using the form below, and make sure to check this page for news and updates about the Teen Takeover program!

Plan a Field Trip to JCSM!

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As 2017 gets underway, consider making the Jule Collins Smith Museum of Fine Art part of your school year!

Our mission is to bring the arts to our community. We invite classes, community groups, clubs and organizations, and other groups of school-aged children to visit our museum for a guided tour led by trained museum educators and docents.

Exploring the galleries with a docent offers amazing learning opportunities for your students to engage with art, discover more about artists and their processes, and have meaningful discussions about the arts and their relevance. Our docents work to engage students in casual dialogue, encouraging peer discussion, critical thinking, and hands-on analysis.

The arts are an integral part of all cultures, and JCSM educators are eager to explore the relationships of artists and their historical context with your class. Guided tours offer a wealth of relevant information based on the interests of each group. Below is some information about our fall exhibitions to help you plan your visit.

Jiha Moon: Double Welcome, Most Everyone is Mad Here

Exhibition Dates:

January 21—April 30, 2017
Bill L. Harbert Gallery and Gallery C


Camera Lucida

Exhibition Dates:

Aug. 27, 2016 to Jan. 7, 2017
Bill L. Harbert Gallery and Gallery C

2012 1072 Reception_0047

1072 Society Exhibition

Exhibition Dates:

Nov. 5, 2016 to Jan.29, 2017
Louise Hauss and David Brent Miller Audubon Gallery


Audubon Inspirations: Prints by Jane E. Goldman

Exhibition Dates:

Nov. 5, 2016 to Jan.29, 2017
Louise Hauss and David Brent Miller Audubon Gallery

Guided visits are recommended for students who are at or above pre-k level and last about an hour. Groups are free to explore the Museum on their own after the tour.

Group Size
We ask that groups have no more than 75 students per visit, with one chaperone required for every ten students.

Visit Schedule
Guided visits are available at any time during our museum hours listed below. While the museum is closed to the public on Mondays, tours may still be scheduled in advance for university and K-12 classes.

All guided tours must be requested at least two weeks in advance. You may schedule a tour by contacting our tour coordinator by e-mail or call 334-844-3486

K–12 Studio Art Programs

The Jule Collins Smith Museum of Fine Art is pleased to offer art-making activities to supplement in-gallery tours and discussions. After exploring and discussing the works on view, students have the opportunity to take part in related hands-on lessons lead by members of the museum’s education staff. These activities serve to provide a personal tangible art experience for our young learners and encourage material exploration and problem solving.

  • K–12 Studio Art Programs can accommodate a maximum of thirty students
  • $50 per workshop
  • The museum provides all necessary materials and staff members to facilitate the lessons

JCSM Presents a Live Tango with the Auburn Argentinian Tango Group

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As a part of the museum’s regular summer music series, “After Hours,” JCSM is proud to present a LIVE TANGO with the Auburn Argentinian Tango Group. New to the dance? Join us for instruction from 5 to 6 p.m. From 6 to 8 p.m., we tango! This program features the Tango Orchestra Club of Atlanta with Dr. Howard Goldstein and the Auburn Argentinian Tango Group.

Space is limited, and pre-registration is SOLD OUT. After 4:30 p.m. check-in, stand-by participants may be accommodated at 6:15 p.m. as space and time allows. Early-bird registration for future events like this one is available through museum membership.  The museum galleries, café and shop are open to the public during this event.    

JCSM and the Auburn Argentinian Tango Group thank Dr. John Stewart for helping to make this program possible. Museum admission is free. A five-dollar donation at the door is appreciated.

Members of the Tango Orchestra Club Atlanta pose for a group photograph.

Tango Orchestra Club Atlanta (TOCA) is an Atlanta-based community orchestra of professional and trained musicians who love tango. We perform authentic Argentine tango arrangements both para escuchar (concert tangos for listening) and para bailar (tango for dancing at a milonga). Our repertory includes classic tango, tango nuevo, and contemporary tango. Our Atlanta performances have included concerts at Emory University and the Latin-American Center as well as at numerous milongas. We have also performed at Auburn University, the University of Miami, and the University of California, Riverside. Our name pays tribute not only to the city of Atlanta, but also to a famous Buenos Aires football club as well as one of the first labels to record tangos. Our acronym, however, reflects what we like to do best, namely, PLAY!

Musician Bios

Music Director/Pianist Kristin Wendland (PhD, CUNY) is a senior lecturer in Music at Emory University in Atlanta where she teaches music theory classes; history and culture classes; Argentine tango courses; and arranges for, coaches, and mentors the students of the Emory Tango Ensemble. Her book “Tracing Tangueros: Argentine Tango Instrumental Music” (Oxford University Press) with coauthor Kacey Link appeared in March, 2016.

Violinist Howard Goldstein (DMA, Peabody) is a professor of music at Auburn University where he conducts the orchestra and teaches music history. He has been a member of the Columbus Symphony for over 20 years. He nurtured his love for tango by attending two College Music Society workshops in Buenos Aires organized by Dr. Wendland.

Mary McCoy (violin/viola) is a nationally board-certified orchestra director, specializing in elementary-level instruction, with a degree in Music Education from Loyola University in New Orleans, Louisiana. Born in Buenos Aires, she was officially introduced to tango as music, dance and lifestyle in Atlanta in 2007.

Todd Markey (bass) has a wide range of musical skills, including performance in classical, jazz, and rock styles, as well as composition and music theory. He received a Masters degree in Music Performance in double bass from the University of North Texas in 1997 and taught at Valdosta State University from 2000 to 2004. He is the creator of the popular string education website, 

Vincent Aleandri (accordion) has been a professional accordionist since 1959, when he joined the Tamburitzans while attending Duquesne University. He served as musical director for the Pittsburgh Folk Festival from 1970 to 1982, and was a solo and featured musician at Walt Disney World from 1982 to 2006. He currently performs at numerous venues in the Atlanta area.

Cèsar Augusto (tenor) developed a passion for tango as a youth in Colombia. He studied voice at Truett McConnell College in Georgia and with Elizabeth Nohe Colson in Atlanta. After appearing in several opera workshops and master classes, he portrayed Juan Peron in the 2015 Serenbe Playhouse production of Evita.

12-hour “Takeover” in less than a minute

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On Monday, May 23, 2016 from 7 p.m. to 7 a.m., 18 students in grades eight through 12 produced artwork for “Teen Takeover.” Watch 12 hours of work edited down to less than a minute, and experience the exhibition May 26 through May 27 and May 31 through June 5.

The “Teen Takeover” program and exhibition is supported in part by a charitable gift from J&M Bookstore, Inc.

A Little Lunch Music 5/19: Cellist Laura Usiskin Returns to Museum Series

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On May 19 from noon to 1:00 pm, Jule Collins Smith Museum of Fine Art, Auburn University will present “A Little Lunch Music”in the Grand Gallery by cellist Laura Usiskin with pianist Ting Li. Featured on the program will be music by Ludwig van Beethoven, William Price, and Astor Piazolla. The concert is being supported by Stephen and Leslie Swartz. The café menu is available online.

Usiskin lives, teaches and performs chamber music in Birmingham, and often travels to make music. She holds the principle cello position in Orchestra Iowa, and performs with Trio Arté based in New York. Until 2013, she led the Montgomery Music Project which she founded during her tenure as cello fellow with the Montgomery Symphony Orchestra.

Usiskin coordinates a music series at the University of Alabama at Birmingham’s Abroms-Engel Institute for the Visual Art. Performances occur a few times each year and serve to complement new AEIVA exhibitions.

Usiskin will perform with pianist Ting Li. Li was a Birmingham resident until recently, and now lives in Mississippi. Usiskin said she and Li started collaborating after Li reached out to her to get together and play informally.

Li’s biography mentions that she was the first Asian pianist to win the Music Teachers National Association southwest region piano competition. Among her other honors are having been part of the Cleveland Institute of Music’s collaborative piano program.

At opus 5, Ludwig van Beethoven’s Cello Sonata No. 2, which will open Thursday’s concert, is very early in the composer’s output. Even as a Romantic Period piece, it is also early in the history of cello sonatas, said Usiskin. She said up to this point, the cello had not really been used a solo instrument, but served more of a bass function. Classical Period composers like Mozart and Haydn didn’t write cello sonatas, she said.

“I think there’s a boldness and intensity to a lot of Beethoven’s music,” said Usiskin. She said among other things, his sudden and surprising shifts in volume give a very dramatic quality to the music. “[It has] more charged, emotional content that is uniquely Beethoven,” she said.

Usiskin and Li will also perform “Sans Titre V,” composed in 2006 by William Price. Price is on the music faculty at UAB. Usiskin said the piece has themes that she hears as characters. “It kind of tells a story,” she added. She said it has a lyrical, singing character and a brutal character. “‘Brutal’ is actually written in the part,” she said.

It is a rarity to have music by Astor Piazzolla with just cello and piano, said Usiskin. She said he didn’t write a lot for cello. “Le Grand Tango” is the exception, and will close Thursday’s program. “Tangos have real intensity to them,” she said, adding that some might expect Tango to be lighthearted because it’s a dance. “This is pretty serious,” she said, adding, “Tangos are passionate.”

Guest Blogger: “Basquiat” Screens for FILM@JCSM April 7

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On Thursday, April 7 at 4 p.m. JCSM will screen the biographical drama, “Basquiat” in the auditorium. Run time is 108 min.

The film will be introduced by Freda Hadley, visiting assistant professor of ethnomusicology, Oberlin College.

Free admission thanks to our business partners, but advance ticket reservation is encouraged. A suggested donation of $5 is appreciated.

Reserve Here

About the Film

Enigmatic and expressive, Jean-Michel Basquiat (1960 – 1988) was a prolific artist that sliced through society’s unassuming veneer to highlight injustice and reveal greater truths. In his first artistic endeavor, Basquiat took to the streets under the name SAMO where he completed textual pieces of graffiti comprised of trenchant observations about the world at large. Alongside the graffiti tradition, Basquiat regularly painted on various media, from a girlfriend’s dress to a stack of tires. Basquiat cultivated a bold and colorful Neo-Expressionist style that straddled the line between abstraction and figuration. His works were covered in snippets of scrawled text, drawings, and historical information, pulling upon a powerful amalgam of themes including pop-culture, African-American culture, music and youth culture which coalesced into a powerful visual language. Basquiat’s art focused on pointed critiques of contemporary society, condemning systemic racism and classism. His arresting images captivated the attention of the market and critics alike. Even today, his works, still highly revered and desired, have been sold for more than $16 million dollars.

“Basquiat” (1996) is both a dreamy and poignant venture into the artist’s propulsion from homeless gallery assistant in Tompkins Square Park to artist of international acclaim. With the vibrant 1980s New York art scene as a backdrop, this journey, brought to life by the skillful lead performance of Jeffrey Wright, is hardly a painless one. Although presenting in over twenty-three solo exhibitions and receiving incredible sums of money for his work, Basquiat struggles to curb his drug addiction despite repeated requests from mentor and artistic colleague, Andy Warhol (David Bowie), and confronts both blatant and insidious forms of racism in his ascent. In one scene, an unnamed interviewer (Christopher Walken) unabashedly asks Basquiat how he felt being deemed the “pickaninny” of the art world. As the movie ends, Basquiat relates a metaphorical tale to friend Benny (Benicio Del Toro) about a voiceless prince trapped in a tower who repeatedly knocked his crowned head against the prison bars in the hopes that he would be heard. Although people hear the beautiful sound he makes ringing through the air, they never find or release the prince. Just like his story counterpart, Basquiat declares, “It’s definitely time to get out of here.”

Written by Laura Pratt, Senior, History.


FILM@JCSM stands for “Fostering Interdisciplinary Learning through Movies.” The 2016 spring semester selections are programmed in conjunction with Face to Face: Artists’ Self-Portraits from the Collection of Jackye and Curtis Finch Jr.

Each FILM@JCSM begins at 4 p.m., and will be introduced by a guest scholar. After the screening, there is café service and live jazz from 5 to 8 p.m.

A Little Lunch Music 3/31: Four AU Students to Perform Music for Solo Piano

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At noon on Thursday, March 31, pianist Christian McGee will perform a free concert at Jule Collins Smith Museum of Fine Art, Auburn University as a part of the museum’s weekly series, “A Little Lunch Music.” The performance is being sponsored by Malcolm and Ruth Crocker. The Museum Café is open from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. Tuesday through Friday. The music can sometimes be heard inside the café, or visitors can dine before or after the concerts. Admission to the fine art exhibitions is free courtesy of JCSM Business Partners. A suggested donation of $5 is appreciated.

Series coordinator Patrick McCurry said Auburn University senior Christian McGee has performed for “A Little Lunch Music” as soloist and as a collaborator. He said since her first appearance as a freshman in 2012, she has developed a reputation. “The audiences love the way she plays,” he said, adding that he expects several will be there just because she is on the program.

McGee is from Florence, Alabama, and was once chosen to perform a movement of a Beethoven concerto at Carnegie Hall. She works with The Shoals Symphony, and premiered Roger Brigg’s “Symphony No. 2” with the group. She has appeared as a recitalist and has won awards in competitions across Georgia and Alabama. McGee will perform four movements from Nikolai Medtner’s “Fairy Tales, Op. 51,” as well as “Pieces pour Piano” by Béla Bartók.

McCurry said the other three pianists are new to the series. All are students of Dr. Jeremy Samolesky who heads the piano program at Auburn.

Pictured left is Emma Beth Fisher, middle is Trent Briden, and above is Rebekah Horton.)

Emma Beth Fisher is a freshman from Tampa, Florida. She plays piano, violin, and organ, and received her High School Diploma in Social Music from the American College of Musicians. She holds honors from the American Guild of Organists and Florida Federation of Music Clubs. Fisher will perform Lowell Lieberman’s “Nocturne, Op. 38, No. 4.”

Trent Briden was born and raised in St. Louis, Missouri. In addition to studying classical piano, he is currently pianist for The Evans Project, one of Auburn’s jazz combos. He will be releasing a CD of original piano solos this spring. Briden will perform Frédéric Chopin’s “Nocturne in F-sharp major, Op. 15, No. 2.”

Rebekah Horton is a sophomore from Birmingham, Alabama, studying accounting as well as piano. She has received first prize in the Birmingham Music Teachers Association Sonata-Sonatina competition and honors in the Alabama Music Teachers Association State Piano Auditions and Alabama Federation of Music Clubs Solo and Hymn festivals. Horton will perform Franz Joseph Haydn’s “Sonata in D major, HOB xvi:33, mov. 1,” and Franz Schubert’s “Impromptu in A-flat, Op. 142, No. 2.”

A Little Lunch Music 3/24: Montgomery Youth to Present String Music

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At noon on Thursday, March 24, the Montgomery Music Project will perform a free concert at JCSM as a part of the museum’s weekly series, “A Little Lunch Music.” The performance is being sponsored by Bob and Liz Greenleaf.

The Montgomery Music Project (MMP) is a member of El Sistema USA, an alliance of El Sistema inspired programs. El Sistema is the Venezuelan music education group that promotes social change through music. It is famous for producing the LA Philharmonic conductor Gustavo Dudamel.

Since 2014, Noemí Oeding has been the executive director of MMP, now in its fifth year. She said the hope is that MMP’s strategies can, through teaching music, give students the chance to succeed in life, whatever their backgrounds. Oeding said concepts like self-motivation, teamwork, and perseverance are all needed to be good musicians, but are just as important in normal life.

“Success to us is having students more engaged at school and at home because of what they’ve learned in their music classes,” said Oeding. “The focus is on making great people.”

Oeding said Thursday’s performance at the museum is an amazing opportunity. “Some of these kids have never left Montgomery,” she said. She added it will put them in the role of semi-professional musicians, something that commands respect and demands responsibility.

Oeding said one student, who had natural musical abilities, reminded her of herself and came from a similar background. “She was coasting on her talent,” said Oeding, who pushed her to do more. She said now the student has flourished into a confident soloist and leader among her peers. And it’s not just that one student, said Oeding. “Musically, the kids have really taken off in the last couple of years,” she said.

The group recently joined with the Park Crossing High School band and Hollywood filmmaker Sarah Adina Smith to make its first recording for a film score. Smith, who knows MMP’s founder Laura Usiskin, was looking for a certain sound for a scene in her movie. Oeding said the Project’s group of young players was a perfect fit.

Thomas Hinds wrote a version of Richard Wagner’s “Ride of the Valkyries” for the group’s recording. “He’s a big supporter of the program, and he leapt at the chance to write an arrangement,” said Oeding. Hinds conducts the Montgomery Symphony Orchestra. MMP was established through the orchestra and operates under its oversight.

Before MMP, Oeding said the only opportunity for most kids to learn strings in Montgomery was through the public school system’s magnet program. For that, a lottery determined who got to be involved. Now, six to ten string professionals are teaching with the Project at any given time. This makes opportunity for 111 children to learn in group lessons and two orchestras. She said membership reflects the cultural and socio-economic makeup of its Montgomery community.

Oeding thinks 200 children could be involved in the next five years, but financial contributions are needed. She said Montgomery has the raw potential to produce many more participants. “If we had enough resources, we could reach a thousand students,” she said.

The Museum Café is open from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. Tuesday through Friday. The music can sometimes be heard inside the café, or visitors can dine before or after the concerts. Admission to the fine art exhibitions is free courtesy of JCSM Business Partners.

A Little Lunch Music 3/10: Flute-Guitar Duo Will Present a Diverse Palette

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At noon on Thursday, March 10, Duo Avem, featuring flutist Lydia Carroll and guitarist Andrew Wilder will perform a free concert at Jule Collins Smith Museum of Fine Art, Auburn University as a part of the museum’s weekly series, “A Little Lunch Music.” The performance is being sponsored by Anonymous Friends of the Series.

Every spring, the guitar studio and the flute studio at Columbus State University’s Schwob School of Music get together for a joint concert. Two years ago, Lydia Carroll and Andrew Wilder paired up. The result produced not only music for the concert, but a named duo with a full repertoire and gigs in the community.

Carroll, who earned her Master’s degree from CSU, has stayed at the school for its Artist Diploma program. She said Wilder is a good match, even though he is an undergrad. She said he is a bit older than the others, having studied guitar in Italy right after high school. “It’s been really great playing with him,” said Carroll.

Wilder’s biography boasts two parents who work as professionals in classical music and ten siblings who have studied it extensively.

The duo will perform new music by Atanas Ourkouzounov, born in 1970. Carroll said the piece, “Légendes,” references the composer’s Bulgarian culture and its dance. It requires unusual flute techniques and makes use of mixed meter, a kind of rhythm and timing less familiar in traditional western music.

Thursday’s program will feature some transcriptions, or music that was composed for other instruments. Carroll and Wilder have arranged a baroque organ piece by Johann Sebastian Bach. One work by Arvo Pärt was originally for for cello and piano. Another one by Pärt, “Vater Unser,” or “The Lord’s Prayer,” was first meant to be performed by a boy soprano and piano.

Carroll said transcriptions like these pose certain challenges. For instance, playing a wind instrument requires breathing, and organ music is not usually written with that in mind. Plus, she said Pärt’s music very often uses lots of really long whole notes. “It’s been interesting as a flutist trying to make the phrases work,” she said.

Pärt was born in 1935. Aside from its beauty, one thing Carroll likes about his music is that he uses it to communicate his Christian faith. She said the same is true for Bach. Carroll said she believes there is worth in music strictly as an artistic expression, but using it in this overtly spiritual way resonates with her.

The Museum Café is open from 11 a.m. to 2 p.m. Tuesday through Friday. The music can sometimes be heard inside the café, or visitors can dine before or after the concerts. Free admission thanks to our business partners, but advance ticket reservation is encouraged. A suggested donation of $5 is appreciated.

A Little Lunch Music 3/3: Montgomery Symphony Cello Fellow to Perform

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At noon on Thursday, March 3, cellist Natalie Helm will perform a free concert at Jule Collins Smith Museum of Fine Art, Auburn University as a part of the museum’s weekly series, “A Little Lunch Music.” The performance is sponsored by Nick and Pat Giordano.

Though there are many ways to play the music of Johann Sebastian Bach, cellist Natalie Helm contends that there is not one that is right or wrong. The idea of how to interpret music is highly debated and studied. Performers consider how fast or slow a piece should be, whether to use vibrato, which note ornaments to use, how much space to leave between notes, and other nuanced details. One of the most contentious debates centers around the music of Bach.

Helm is an award-winning performer and has appeared with orchestras around the country. She said she respects those performers who make great effort to reproduce the elements of Bach’s historical period, the Baroque.

But aside from the fact that it is difficult to play strictly authentic 300 year old music on her only 200 year old Raphael di Blasio cello, Helm said she likes Bach a little more romanticized. With his music, she prefers to express how she feels at the moment of performance.

Like any artist, Bach was inspired by the people around him and the events in his own life, said Helm. She said his “Suite No. 2,” for instance, was inspired by the death of his first wife, Maria Barbara. “Bach was actually trying to express his own self, and we’re allowed to do the same,” said Helm.

The cello suites are performed frequently, not only by cellists, but also classical performers of other instruments. Beyond that, their themes, especially those of the first suite, have made their way into popular culture, appearing in commercials and movies. They are now recognizable to many. Even for Helm, “Suite No. 1” holds a special place. When she switched from violin to cello at age 11, she said she sat down and played it immediately.

But Helm said the suites have not been able to boast this kind of attention from the beginning. In fact, she said early scholars dismissed them as études meant for teaching certain performance skills. Part of the reason for this is that they increase in difficulty in order from the first to the sixth. Helm said in 1890, the famous cellist Pablo Casals found them in a music shop, and didn’t even play them publicly until the early 20th century.

Through her education and career, Helm has had experience playing new music by still-living composers. Some have been famous composers such as Krzysztof Penderecki and Elliot Carter. Helm said that having rehearsed and performed new music in direct collaboration with its creators has affected her approach to playing Bach. She has learned that composers are generally more concerned with expressing ideas than with specific performance practice.

With Penderecki, Helm said he was less concerned, for instance, about the note being short enough. “It was about portraying what he was trying to get across to the audience,” she said.

For Helm, it helps to put Bach in the same place as her friend in graduate school who wrote a piece for her recital. She said he wrote it quickly and really only because she asked him. The same is true for Bach and others whom history has deemed to be the great masters. They wrote music to honor a friend, to impress a prince, or to satisfy a job requirement.

And Helm said with Bach, the music contains little instruction, giving the performer a lot of liberty. “There are rarely markings,” said Helm, adding, “It probably wasn’t really that big a deal at the time.”

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